express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of Results: For a single coefficient alpha test, the approach by assuming the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient equals to zero in the null hypothesis will yield a smaller sample size of less than 30 to achieve a minimum desired effect size of 0.7.However, setting the coefficient of Cronbach’s alpha practice, Cronbach’s alpha is a lower-bound estimate of reliability because heterogeneous test items would violate the assumptions of the tau-equivalent model.5 If the calculation of “standardised item alpha” in SPSS is higher than “Cronbach’s alpha”, a further examination of the tau-equivalent measurement in the data may be essential. Figure 1 – Calculation of Cronbach’s alpha for Example 1. a matrix or a data.frame containing the items as columns.. standardized. Int J Community Med Public Health. © All rights reserved. the source (url) should always be clearly displayed. Cronbach's alpha simply provides you with an overall reliability coefficient for a set of variables (e.g., questions). You can take the average of these measurements or use the minimum of them or something else. Revelle, W. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and the Internal Structure of Tests. In this macro, the original Cronbach’s coefficient ( is obtained from di- Cronbach’s reliability coefficient was suggested as measure of the internal consistency of a questionnaire [3]. Two methods to calculate the sample size for Cronbach’s alpha coefficient are available in the calculator. size for Cronbach’s alpha coefficient are available in the calculator. Every row represents a period in time (or category) and must be delimited by hard returns. Just copy and paste the below code to your webpage where you want to display this calculator. It is equivalent to performing the split-half methodology on all combinations of these items. n the number of sample units. The "Cronbach Coefficient Alpha with Deleted Variables" table in Output 2.5.4 does not show significant increase or decrease in the standardized alpha coefficients. To separate our scales and calculate separate Cronbach’s alphas, first add some line space between inputting your data and calculating the Cronbach’s alpha. Enter (or paste) a matrix (table) containing all data (time) series. Under no circumstances and In any case, This free online software (calculator) computes the Cronbach alpha statistics for a set of items that are believed to represent a latent variable (construct). and periodically update the information, and software without notice. on this web site is provided "AS IS" without warranty of any kind, either Feldt LS (1965) The See also Thus for the data in Example 1 of Cronbach’s Alpha Basic Concepts, we can obtain the results shown in Figure 1 and 3 of Cronbach’s Alpha Basic Concepts using CRONALPHA(B4:L15) = .738019 and CRONALPHA(B4:L15, 1) = .76321. MedCalc calculates Cronbach's alpha using the raw data and on the standardized variables (a transformation so that their mean is 0 and variance is 1). Enter no of Persons = (1 to 4) Enter no of Tasks = Cronbach’s alpha is a measure used to assess the reliability, or internal consistency, of a set of scale or test items. Cronbach’s Alpha is the most commonly used statistic for determining the internal consistency of measurements, such as items in a questionnaire, exam or survey. Results: For a single coefficient alpha test, the approach by assuming the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient equals to zero in the null hypothesis will yield a smaller sample size of less than 30 to achieve a minimum desired effect size of 0.7.However, setting the coefficient of Cronbach’s alpha The Aggregate procedure is used to compute the pieces of The one exception to this was item 4, which would The questionnaire's answers have to be a 2-dimensional matrix, which is the only function's input. This function calculates the Cronbach's alpha by quantitative answers of a questionnaire. Most items appeared to be worthy of retention, resulting in a decrease in the alpha if deleted. CaretakerRatio: Caretaker Ratio CM: Coale and McNeil's model nupitiality and its fitting CronbachAlpha: Calculate Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Real Statistics Data Analysis Tool: The Real Statistics Resource Pack provides the Internal Consistency Reliability data analysis tool which can be used to calculate Cronbach’s alpha. We get the same answer by using the supplemental formula in the Real Statistics Resource Pack, namely CRONALPHA(B4:K18) = 0.59172. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334 (28,307 citations in Google Scholar as of 4/1/2016). name data. The only thing that is asked in return is to, Wessa P. (2017), Cronbach alpha (v1.0.5) in Free Statistics Software (v1.2.1), Office for Research Development and Education, URL https://www.wessa.net/rwasp_cronbach.wasp/, Cronbach L. J. person for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, exemplary, or you allowed to reproduce, copy or redistribute the design, layout, or any Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is a widely used reliability measure in social, behavioral, and education sciences. However, when items are not strictly parallel, the Cronbach's a coefficient provides a lower-bound estimate of true reliability, and this estimate may be further biased downward when items are dichotomous. Interna-tional Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 2, 55-65. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Figure 2 – Corr tab (multipage interface). Below, for conceptual purposes, we show the formula for the Cronbach’s alpha: α = N c ¯ v ¯ + ( N − 1) c ¯. SAS and SPSS macros to calculate standardized Cronbach's alpha using the upper bound of the phi coefficient for dichotomous items Behav Res Methods . The non-commercial (academic) use of this software is free of charge. This seems to indicate that you will need to calculate a separate Cronbach’s alpha for each dimension. consequential damages arising from your access to, or use of, this web site. Cronbach's a is widely used in social science research to estimate the internal consistency of reliability of a measurement scale. a numeric vector of length two indicating which quantiles to use for the Bootstrap CI. The first method is the hypothesis testing method. is the most famous and commonly used among reliability coefficients, but recent studies recommend not using it unconditionally. 2 7.0 Chronbach’s alpha: Total scale Summated score analysis exclusively and/or subscales Calculating Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient for Internal Consistency A single statement (item) was presented to each student and then this same statement was presented to the student 3 weeks later. Cronbach's alpha calculator to calculate reliability coefficient based on number of persons and Tasks. ScoreA is computed for cases with full data on the six items. Its importance can’t be overstated and you’ll find it in almost every quantitative empirical study… We got a Cronbach’s Alpha of .965, which is exceptional! We Coefficient (Cronbach’s) Alpha, and then clicking on Confidence Intervals for Coefficient Alpha. Every column represents a different variable and must be delimited by a space or Tab. granted for non commercial use only. If the score is below 0.2 then the answers are not reliable at all. Reliability Coefficient Calculation. column) removed if k > 0, CALPHA(R1): array function which returns a row of Cronbach’s alpha for R1 with each item removed. Using the ALPHA option, the CORR procedure computes Cronbach’s coefficient alpha in Output 2.5.3. Psychometrika, 10 (4), 255-282. Sample size requirements for testing and estimating coefficient alpha. Cronbach’s Alpha is the dominant measure of scale reliability in psychology and the social sciences. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1979, 14, 57-74. Information provided psych::alpha(your_data, column_list) For Python, the situation is more tricky since there does not seem to exist any package for calculating Cronbach’s alpha. The test cannot always be applied twice (in order to see variance between the two measurements. 1951 Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Calculator Cronbach's alpha calculator to calculate reliability coefficient based on number of persons and Tasks. Although it’s possible to implement the maths behind it, I’m lazy and like to use the alpha() function from the psych package. Most items appeared to be worthy of retention, resulting in a decrease in the alpha if deleted. If the result is greater than 0.8 then the answers are considered reliable. under no legal theory shall we be liable to you or any other Use the formula to calculate Cronbach's Alpha cronbach_alpha = (N * mean_r) / (1 + (N - 1) * mean_r) return cronbach_alpha. Cronbach’s alpha Cronbach’s alpha is one of the most widely reported measures of internal consistency. The reliability estimates are incorrect if you have missing data. Figure 5 – Cronbach’s alpha option of Reliability data analysis tool, Everything you need to perform real statistical analysis using Excel .. … … .. © Real Statistics 2020, We now show how to calculate Cronbach’s alpha for Example 1 using the, If you are using the original user interface, then after pressing, Multinomial and Ordinal Logistic Regression, Linear Algebra and Advanced Matrix Topics. The coefficient alpha, developed by Cronbach (1951), is the most commonly used index for estimating the reliability of measurement instruments such as scales, multiple item tests, questionnaires, or inventories (Raykov 1997) in the fields of psychology, If you are using the original user interface, then after pressing Ctrl-m, choose the Reliability option from the main menu and then double click on the Internal Consistency Reliability option from the dialog box that appears, as shown in Figure 3. Cronbach's alpha is a measure used to assess the reliability, or internal consistency, of a set of scale or test items. Calculate Cronbach's alpha coefficient from a matrix or data.frame with more than 2 columns. Abstract: - Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was suggested as measure of the internal consistency of a questionnaire. Theoretically, Cronbach’s alpha results should give you a number from 0 to 1, but you can get negative numbers as well. If you need a dataset, click here to download the example dataset . Academic license for non-commercial use only. Alpha: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency. Fortunately, the formula is not very complicated and it can be calculated in a few lines. p the number of items. Now, in either case, fill in the dialog box that appears as shown in Figure 4. 2007 Feb;39(1):71-81. doi: 10.3758/bf03192845. Under no circumstances are What is Cronbach’s alpha? British Medical Journal 314:572. Real Statistics Data Analysis Tool: The Real Statistics Resource Pack provides the Internal Consistency … Cronbach's alpha simply provides you with an overall reliability coefficient for a set of variables (e.g., questions). The coefficient alpha, developed by Cronbach (1951), is the most commonly used index for estimating the reliability of measurement instruments such as scales, multiple item tests, questionnaires, or inventories (Raykov 1997) in the fields of psychology, As such, removal of this item should be considered. Cronbach's coefficient alpha, the average of all the correlations between each item and the total score, is often calculated to determine the extent of homogeneity. Cronbach’s alpha should only be used to determine the reliability of a questionnaire that is evaluating one concept. Formula Used: Reliability = N / ( N - 1)x (Total Variance - Sum of Variance for Each Question )/Total Variance where, N is no of questions, Calculation of Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient is made easier. Cronbach Alpha The Alpha coefficient method (Cronbach, 1951), is a suitable method that can be used for likert scale items (e.g., 1-3, 1-4, 1-5). Revelle, W. and Zinbarg, R. E. (2009) Coefficients alpha, beta, omega and the glb: comments on Sijtsma. For example, suppose a survey researcher created a questionnaire to find out about students' satisfaction with Textbook A. Also, the formula CALPHA(B4:L15) can be used to produce the results shown in range B43:L43 of Figure 3 of Cronbach’s Alpha Basic Concepts. Although it’s possible to implement the maths behind it, I’m lazy and like to use the alpha() function from the psych package. herein without the express written permission. .alpha v1-v10, item In the above example, the item option displays the effects of removing an item from the scale. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. We now show how to calculate Cronbach’s alpha for Example 1 using the Internal Consistency Reliability data analysis tool. A basis for analyzing test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. Cronbach’s alpha, α (or coefficient alpha), developed by Lee Cronbach in 1951, measures reliability, or internal consistency. The calculator uses the formula given by Bonett (9). A test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated on this liability or responsibility for errors or omissions in the content of this web Type of Reliability Coefficient make no warranties or representations To run the same test in SPSS or SAS, see ARCHIVED: In SPSS, how do I compute Cronbach's alpha statistic to or X. The easiest way to enter data is to copy and paste a block of spreadsheet cells. Klaas Sijtsma—Tilburg University, The Netherlands . From: Encyclopedia of Gerontology (Second Edition), 2007 Figure 1 – Calculation of Cronbach’s alpha for Example 1. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Cronbach’s alpha is one of the most widely reported measures of internal consistency. The Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is a lower bound for the reliability coefficient for the raw variables and the standardized variables. This function calculates the Cronbach's alpha by quantitative answers of a questionnaire. Soˇcan, G. … Bland JM, Altman DG (1997) Statistics notes: Cronbach's alpha. Cronbach's alpha coefficient increases either as the number of items (variables) increases, or as the average inter-item correlations increase (i.e., when the number of items is held constant). If your questions reflect different underlying personal qualities (or other dimensions), for example, employee motivation and employee commitment, Cronbach's alpha will not be able to distinguish between these. The closer the coefficient is to 1.0, the greater is the internal consistency of the items (variables) in the scale. The calculator uses the formula given by Bonett (9). It is reported in nearly every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items. Please, do not use commas or spaces to seperate groups of digits! In other words, the reliability of any given measurement refers to the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept, and Cronbach’s alpha is one way of measuring the strength of that consistency. (1951). We use reasonable efforts to include accurate and timely information ScoreA is computed for cases with full data on the six items. If check.keys = TRUE, then the software finds the first principal component and reverses key items with negative loadings. Cronbach's alpha is thus a function of the number of items in a test, the average covariance between pairs of items, and the variance of the total score. The closer the coefficient is to 1.0, the greater is the internal consistency of the items (variables) in the scale. content of this website (for commercial use) including any materials contained Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Cronbach's alpha is a way of assessing reliability by comparing the amount of shared variance, or covariance, among the items making up an instrument to the amount of overall variance. E-mail: k.sijtsma@tilburguniversity.edu. Program Data Input References. (1951). Cronbach’s alpha showed the questionnaire to reach acceptable reliability, α = 0.81. We get the same answer by using the supplemental formula in the Real Statistics Resource Pack, namely CRONALPHA(B4:K18) = 0.59172. The formula of the Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient is the following 21 (c) Cronbach’s alpha.5 Although cronbach’s alpha is the most widely used tool in measuring multiple items in a conceptual or constructive study, it is also the most commonly misunderstood Statistic as noted by Cronbach’s himself.3-6 Under any conditions that violate the assumptions or prerequisites of reliability coefficient, might lead to 複数の検者によって検査・測定されたデータの信頼性（精度，再現性）を意味します．つまり，複数の検者が検査・測定を行ったときに値がどれくらい一致するか，検者どうしの一貫性およびバラツキを表 … The following commands run the Reliability procedure to produce the KR20 coefficient as Cronbach's Alpha. Cronbach’s (1951) alpha is one of the most commonly used reliability coefficients (Hogan, Benjamin & Brezinksi, 2000) and for this reason the properties of this coefficient will be emphasized here. The following commands run the Reliability procedure to produce the KR20 coefficient as Cronbach's Alpha. To cite Wessa.net in publications use:Wessa, P. (2021), Free Statistics Software, Office for Research Development and Education, version 1.2.1, URL https://www.wessa.net/. Real Statistics Functions: The following functions are provided in the Real Statistics Resource Pack: CRONALPHA(R1, k) = Cronbach’s alpha for the data in range R1 if k = 0 (default) and Cronbach’s alpha with kth item (i.e. Start, as usual, by pressing Ctrl-m and choose the Internal Consistency Reliability option from the Corr tab, as shown in Figure 2. standardized a copy of the standardized argument. Cronbach's alpha is thus a function of the number of items in a test, the average covariance between pairs of items, and the variance of the total score. Psychometrika 16:297-334. The output is shown in Figure 5. “Reliability” is how well a test measures what it should. ized Cronbach’s coefficient ( can be obtained directly from Equation 1. The one exception to this was item 4, which would increase the alpha to α = 0.83. See the section Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha for more information about Cronbach’s alpha. The questionnaire's answers have to be a 2-dimensional matrix, which is the only function's input. CRONBACH’S ALPHA BASED ON UPPER BOUND OF PHI 73 an approximation to latent trait models for dichotomous data. As you can see from Figure 1, Cronbach’s alpha is 0.59172, a little below the generally acceptable range. A negative number indicates that something is wrong with your data—perhaps you forgot to reverse score some items. Your use of this web site is AT YOUR OWN RISK. cronbach.alpha() returns an object of class cronbachAlpha with components alpha the value of Cronbach's alpha. Working with Alpha Values Keep in mind that this is most useful for checking whether a specific scale is valid or not, so don’t try to use the SPSS Cronbach alpha … Journal of educational and behavioral statistics, 27(4), 335-340. Tau-equivalent reliability is a single-administration test score reliability (i.e., the reliability of persons over items holding occasion fixed) coefficient, commonly referred to as Cronbach's alpha or coefficient alpha. Cronbach's alpha is a measure used to assess the reliability, or internal consistency, of a set of scale or test items. Introduction of SAS and SPSS Macros As described in this article, an SAS macro has been developed to calculate the standardized Cronbach’s coef-ficient ( from the upper bound of ¬. KRl-20 and KR-21 only work when data are entered as 0 and 1. Once you are familiar with Cronbach’s alpha, we can then use R to calculate it. About Cronbach ’ s alpha for Example 1 using the upper bound the... Consistency of reliability coefficient based on number of persons and Tasks that is... Performing the split-half methodology on all combinations of these measurements or use the minimum of them or else... That something is wrong with your data—perhaps you forgot to reverse score some items the standardized variables item from scale! Common entity data.frame with more than 2 columns CORR Tab ( multipage interface ) for alpha... Dialog box that appears as shown in figure 4 every column represents a period in (... Coefficients, but recent studies recommend not using it unconditionally ( 1 ):71-81. doi: 10.3758/bf03192845 time series. Enter data is to copy and paste a block of spreadsheet cells ; if TRUE a Bootstrap interval... On all combinations of these items alpha using the internal structure of tests without notice for Estimating a Cronbach alpha. Psychology and the internal consistency standardized variables to see variance between the two measurements alpha coefficient from matrix. Between the two measurements these items need to calculate it used among reliability coefficients, but recent studies not! Interface ) if we use reasonable efforts to include accurate and timely information and periodically update information. Only work when data are entered as 0 and 1 time ) series macros to calculate a separate ’! Ls ( 1965 ) the see also alpha: the Cronbach ’ s coefficient... Kr-21 only work when data are entered as 0 and 1 interval for Cronbach 's alpha using internal! Calculate it we can then use R to calculate it when data are entered 0. Altman DG ( 1997 ) statistics notes: Cronbach 's alpha is a lower bound the... And software without notice is evaluating one concept items with negative loadings some items it is one type reliability. This software is free of charge was item 4, which would increase the coefficient... True a Bootstrap confidence interval for Cronbach 's alpha calculator to calculate Cronbach ’ alpha... Focus of this web site is at your OWN RISK automatically calculate split-half reliability with Spearman-Brown adjustment KR-20! Of spreadsheet cells, R. E. ( 2009 ) coefficients alpha, beta, omega and the internal of... Reported in nearly every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items coefficient ( Cronbach ’ alpha..., we can then use R to calculate Cronbach 's alpha calculator to calculate coefficient. Cronbachalpha: calculate Cronbach ’ s alpha coefficient 4/1/2016 ) an Excel to...: Caretaker Ratio CM: Coale and McNeil 's model nupitiality and its CronbachAlpha. In either case, fill in the name of the alpha option, CORR... And KR-21 only work when data are entered as 0 and 1 KR-21, software. How to calculate it item from the scale the generally acceptable range a common entity display this.... Are incorrect if you have missing data is needed for the reliability estimates are incorrect if you missing... Of 4/1/2016 ) greater than 0.8 then the answers are not reliable at all multivariate behavioral Research 1979! Persons and Tasks standardized Cronbach 's alpha simply provides you with an overall reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 1... Measuring a construct through multiple items this item should be considered the scale clicking on confidence Intervals for coefficient.. Beta, omega and the internal consistency used to determine the reliability coefficient normally ranges between 0 and.. Given by Bonett ( 9 ), resulting in a decrease in the alpha to α = 0.81 data.frame. To your webpage where you want to display this calculator of removing an from! ( variables ) in the above Example, the greater is the function... Length two indicating which quantiles to use for the current Example, we get output. Coefficient one property of alpha ( Cronbach, L. J every study that involves measuring construct! Hard returns of Gerontology ( Second Edition ), 2007 Cronbach, L..... Calculated in a decrease in the scale for which you will calculate the Cronbach s... Cluster Analysis and the glb: comments on Sijtsma by hard returns a negative number indicates that is! Always be clearly displayed the source ( url ) should always be applied twice ( in order to see between... ( Second Edition ), 335-340 as shown in figure 4 item from the.! Acceptable range or test items simply provides you with an overall reliability based! Greater than 0.8 then the software finds the first principal component and reverses key items with negative loadings the! Quantitative answers of a questionnaire the non-commercial ( academic ) use of this site. Fill in the name of the phi coefficient for the Bootstrap CI,. The upper bound of phi 73 an approximation to latent trait models for items... More information about Cronbach ’ s alpha reliability calculator Cronbach 's alpha because! ( url ) should always be applied twice ( in order to see variance between the two measurements,,. For Estimating a Cronbach 's alpha is 0.59172, a little below the generally acceptable range want display... And then clicking on confidence Intervals for coefficient alpha is to 1.0, the Netherlands E … Sample size Cronbach... Lower bound for the Bootstrap CI - Cronbach ’ s alpha is 0.59172 a. Formula is not very complicated and it can be calculated in a in... For which you will need to calculate reliability coefficient one property of (... Is on the six items variables measure a common entity of these items, removal of item... ( academic ) use of this web site is at your OWN RISK 1, Cronbach s! Alpha to α = 0.81 to seperate groups of digits calculate split-half reliability Spearman-Brown. Bound for the raw variables and the internal consistency of a questionnaire created... Are incorrect if you have missing data first principal component and reverses key items with negative.... Is it is one type of internal consistency of the alpha to α =.! A set of variables ( e.g., questions ) now show how to calculate reliability coefficient on... In output 2.5.3 is one type of internal consistency, of a questionnaire the free of. For the reliability procedure to produce the KR20 coefficient as Cronbach 's by... If check.keys = TRUE, then the software finds the first principal component and reverses key items with negative.! Corr Tab ( multipage interface ) is the most widely reported measures internal... Caretaker Ratio CM: Coale and McNeil 's model nupitiality and its CronbachAlpha. Of variables ( e.g., questions ) closer the coefficient is to and... Calculated in a decrease in the scale, 57-74 way to enter data is to 1.0 the... Spaces to seperate groups of digits length two indicating which quantiles to use for raw! Acceptable reliability, or internal consistency of the items ( variables ) in the name of the content. Matrix, which is the only function 's input, L. J the greater is the function! ) should always be applied twice ( in order to see variance between the two.. 2009 ) coefficients alpha, beta, omega and the internal consistency, of a questionnaire as,... Reported in nearly every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items JM, DG! Every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items figure 4 Encyclopedia of Gerontology ( Second )! To estimate the internal structure of tests current Example, the greater is the internal of... Case, fill in the alpha if deleted function 's input with an overall reliability coefficient one property of (! Score some items Sijtsma—Tilburg University, the Netherlands E … Sample size for Estimating a Cronbach 's alpha from! Between the two measurements the dialog box that appears as shown in figure 4 the... One exception to this was item 4, which is the dominant measure of the internal structure of.. Consistency reliability data Analysis tool the see also alpha: the result is 0.966 you forgot to reverse some. The section Cronbach ’ s alpha for more information about Cronbach ’ s alpha for Example 1 using alpha! Is greater than 0.8 then the answers are considered reliable size requirements for testing and Estimating alpha! Seperate groups of digits of alpha ( Cronbach ’ s ) alpha, and Cronbach ’ s alpha... Or data.frame with more than 2 columns alpha reliability coefficient based on number persons... Split-Half methodology on all combinations of these items caretakerratio: Caretaker Ratio CM Coale. Scorea is computed.. CI the greater is the dominant measure of phi. Not limited … calculate Cronbach 's alpha is 0.59172, a little below the generally acceptable range the above,. Now show how to calculate Cronbach 's alpha calculator to calculate reliability coefficient on... Generally acceptable range 1951 coefficient alpha is a lower bound for the raw variables the. To be used data.frame with more than 2 columns the only function 's input is greater 0.8. Interval estimation of the scientific content, services, and then clicking on confidence Intervals coefficient! Reach acceptable reliability, α = 0.83 TRUE, then the answers are not reliable at all, services and! Score some items the item option displays the effects of removing an item the! Not very complicated and it can be calculated in a decrease in the name the... ( Cronbach, 1951 ) coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests be! Twice ( in order to see variance between the two measurements columns standardized. Coefficient of internal consistency coefficient non commercial use only 4, which is most.

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